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Coca, Cocaine, Shakespeare, Erythroxylon coca Lamarck, Erythroxylin, recommended, disorders, Peru, coca wines, Vin Mariani, Angelo Mariani, Ulysses GrantCoca/CocaineCoca, Cocaine, Shakespeare, Erythroxylon coca Lamarck, Erythroxylin, recommended, disorders, Peru, coca wines, Vin Mariani, Angelo Mariani, Ulysses Grant

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Roman Catholic priests tried to stop the use of Coca because they felt it impeded the spreading of the gospel(9 ). Additional hostility toward Coca can be found from the religious community. The Catholic ecclesiastical councils in 1551 and 1567 denounce the use of Coca as idolatry. A royal proclamation said the effect of this Coca caused demoniacal illusion (10 ).

A Spanish physician Nicolas Monardes gave the first botanical description of the Coca plant in 1580. It was translated into English in 1582 by John Frampton under the titled "Joyfulle News Out of the Newe Founde Worlde" (11 ).

Pipes from the 17 century have been found Shakespeare's garden and they have tested positive for cocaine residue (12 ).

The first specimens of the Coca plant was sent to Europe in 1750 by botanist Joseph de Jussieu, it was eventually classified as Erythroxylon coca Lamarck (13 ).

Peruvian physician Hipolito Unanue, told of its use in siege of La Paz (1774) to combat inhabitants hunger, fatigue, and cold. Another person to write favorable about Coca is German scientist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt(14).

"Die Narkotischen Genussmittel und der Mensch", was published by Ernst von Bibra in 1855 it told of 17 drugs such has coffee, tea, hashish, opium and coca. The same year Friedrich Gaedcke created a dry extract from the Coca leaf called "Erythroxylin"(15 ).

When Dr Paolo Mantegazza recommended Coca for toothache, digestive disorders, neurasthenia, and other illnesses, the use of Coca grew rapidly(16 ).

After numerous attempts by different chemists, Albert Niemann of Gottingen isolated the principle alkaloid 1860. Then in 1862 Wilhelm Lossen discovered the chemical formula for Cocaine in 1862(17 ).

Coca, Cocaine, Shakespeare, Erythroxylon coca Lamarck, Erythroxylin, recommended, disorders, Peru, coca wines, Vin Mariani, Angelo Mariani, Ulysses Grant

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