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morphine,addicts, hypodermic syringe, Soldier's Disease, medical uses, addictionsmorphinemorphine,addicts, hypodermic syringe, Soldier's Disease, medical uses, addictions

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Friederich Serturner created morphine from opium in 1803(1). The German pharmacist recalling Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams called his creation `morphium', which later became morphine(2). Friedrich Serturner was twenty when he refined Morphine. He was born Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Ferdinand Serturner in Prussia, in 1783. He was an apprentice with a limited formal education when he discovered Morphine. Specific members of the German medical community refused to fully acknowledge Friedrich discovery due to his lack of an educational background. Despite this in 1831 he received the Montyon prize as a "Benefactor of Humanity" because of a nomination from the distinguished Institute of France. He also received 2,000 francs. Friedrich Serturner died on February 20, 1841 in Hameln (3 ).

Morphine is opium's active ingredient and is ten times more potent than opium(4 ).

Two major factors helped spread the use of Morphine first was the perfection of the hypodermic needle by Dr. Alexander Wood in 1853 (5). A Physician from Scotland (6 ). The second was those wounded war, the American Civil War ( 1861-1865), the Prussian-Austrian War ( 1866), and the Franco-Prussian War ( 1870)(7 ).

About the America Civil war, Morphine was medical used by the North and South during the war. The Union Army got (846 kg) of morphine sulfate. Then the Confederates become conscious of the fact the Union blockades would cut them off from sources of Opium sources, they attempted to get Confederate women to grow the poppy (8 ).

The end game was addiction to morphine became known as "Soldier's Disease."(9).

It is believed that during this time the total number of addicts was a quarter million and was divided equally between medical and street dependence(10 ).

Morphine was seen as having medical value. Some of the possible medical uses for the injection of Morphine were listed in Dr. H. H. Kane's 1880 textbook "The Hypodermic Injection of Morphia. Its a history, advantages, and dangers. It was based on Experience of 360 Physicians," It listed 54 diseases a few were anemia, angina pectoris, diabetes, insanity, nymphomania, and ovarian neuralgia, to tetanus, vaginismus, and vomiting of pregnancy(11 ).

Soon addictions and non medical use of Morphine started to become a concern by the late 1870s. The New York Tribune said in 1878 "A dangerous method of using morphine to produce pleasurable sensations is believed by physicians in this city to be a growing vice," (12 ).

morphine,addicts, hypodermic syringe, Soldier's Disease, medical uses, addictions