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1. "Heroin Century", Tom Carnwath, Ian Smith; Routledge, 2002 Page 6

2. "A Hundred-Year Habit", Ian Scott; History Today, Vol. 48, June 1998

3. Friedrich Serturner Encyclopedia of World Biography January 1, 2004

4. "Drug Use, Policy and Management", Richard E. Isralowitz, Darwin Telias; Praeger Publishers, 1998 Page 39

5. "Opium: A History ", Martin H. Levinson; ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 55, 1998

6. Syringe and Needle Gale Encyclopedia of Surgery: A Guide for Patients and Caregivers January 1, 2004 Fallon, L. Fleming

7. "Drug Use, Policy and Management" Richard E. Isralowitz, Darwin Telias; Praeger Publishers, 1998 Page 39

8. Morphine Drugs and Controlled Substances: Information for Students January 1, 2003

9. "Opium: A History ", Martin H. Levinson; ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 55, 1998

10. "Drug Use, Policy and Management", Richard E. Isralowitz, Darwin Telias; Praeger Publishers, 1998 Page 39

11."Drugs and Drug Policy in America: A Documentary History",Steven R. Belenko; Greenwood Press, 2000 Page 4

12."Drugs in America: A Social History, 1800-1980", Wayne Morgan; Syracuse University Press, 1982 page 27